Bleich argues that Muslims have been constructed as ethno-racial outsiders in Western Europe over the past twenty years. Although the term "Muslim" was scarcely applied to immigrant communities in the decades following World War Two, the late 1980s and then the early 21st century marked two significant turning points in European conceptions of Muslims. He also argues that this construction of images was a political process, with media, political, and civic elites contributing to perceptions of Muslims. He concludes that Europe is at a cross-roads with respect to the direction such images will take in the future.


Bleich, Erik

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